Communism in China is very interesting story. The socio-economic and political system that governs the Chinese is communism. Below, I will summarize some of the historical factors that led the Chinese to adopt communism as a political, social and economic ideology.


The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers

Before Freedom of China, Western World (USA,England,Germany etc) exploited china in every way. Imperialism in China was a great greed of western nations, They divided china for profit and strategic things. So, From starting, root and poor people of china were against from capitalist and inequality.

Same time when Japan severally attacked china for its profit, USSR (Russia) supported china. On that time USSR was communist nation where Marx and Lenin were Ideal Hero. Marx and Lenin ideology gave almost equal opportunity for poor people.

karl marx and lenin
Portrait of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Painting of Lenin

So, In summary since that time where equality and same distribution of wealth was required to uplift poor people, same time capitalist ideology was busy to exploit china as well as other nations rest of world.

So, In compare, Communism ideology gave respect, equality and rights to poor, and became more famous when Mao came in light in China.


Communism in China would never have taken off without the participation of a character named Mao Zedong . He did not receive a good education in childhood, but Mao always stood out for his brilliant intelligence and ability to influence the people. 

In 1911, young Mao joined the ranks of the National Army to participate in the Xinhai Revolution, led by Sun Yat-sen. 


This event overthrew the last imperial dynasty of China (Qing) and officially established the Republic of China. Before long, Mao would receive a powerful influence from the ideology embodied in Marxism.

However, understanding the true motives requires that we return to 1889, the year the Boxer Uprising began. This popular movement eradicated all foreign influences from China, but it also generated hunger, extreme poverty and great suffering that resulted in the loss of countless human lives. 

All of these conflicts paved the way for men like Mao Zedong and the communist philosophy of Karl Marx to become deeply embedded in Chinese culture.

Mao Zedong in front accompanied by famous figures of Soviet communism such as Stalin, Lenin and Marx.

In 1916, after submitting to the will of the warlords, some Chinese began to integrate revolutionary groups and political parties in the hope of promoting change in the country.

Under these conditions, during and after the Great War (1914-1918) in China, various movements arose that strongly promoted communist doctrine, especially due to the enormous dissatisfaction produced by the style of government of the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).

All this atmosphere of chaos and deep despair played an essential role in Mao’s acceptance

At that time, 85% of Chinese citizens supported this character’s proposals, mainly because a large part of the population was made up of poor farmers.


In 1921 the Communist Party of China was founded and Mao Zedong went on to lead the ideals of the communists until the end of the 1949 Chinese Revolution, when the revolutionary fighters defeated the nationalists thanks to the support they received from the Soviet Union (USSR).


Deng Xiaoping with U.S. president
Deng Xiaoping (centre) with U.S. president Gerald Ford (left), 1975

We have to know before it, Chinese people was fully accepted Communist party and Mao. Culture Revolution was a brute force in china for Communism.

The economic boom in China began in late 1978, when the government pushed for broad economic reforms to definitively change the course of the country . 

The great reform, promoted by Deng Xiaoping , was only possible because the head of the Chinese Communist Party saw in this proposal a lifeline to its fragile economy, a situation that could generate the country’s political turmoil in the death of Mao Zedong two years earlier.

The Chinese Communist Party chose to implement the market reforms in two stages. The first came into force in the late 1970s, and consisted of the de-collectivization of agriculture, opening to foreign investment, and authorization for entrepreneurs to start their own businesses. 

Despite this, the State retained a majority percentage of ownership over the industry.

Deng Xiaoping and Mao Zedong
Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) and Mao Zedong (1893-1976) in Beijing, circa 1965.

In the late 1980s, the second stage of the reform was implemented. Certain privatization and contracting measures were used by a large part of the state industry, although they maintained certain measures typical of the communist system such as price controls, protectionist policies and regulations

In the end, the reform was a success as state-owned companies and the private sector grew in a way never seen before, and the Chinese economy reached an average annual growth of approx 9.5%.

The success of these economic policies and the way they were implemented brought great changes to Chinese society . 

In the last 40 years, they observed a considerable reduction in poverty levels, and simultaneously the average income grew. 

The reforms were so beneficial to the country that they placed it as a world power, with the consequent change in its international geopolitical interests.


On Ideological basis, it is yes but After the profound economic and social changes unleashed by the reforms, would it be better to say that China is a communist with a market economy or a capitalist nation with a communist government

If we look at the concept of “state capitalism“, both options are probably correct. Deng himself remained pragmatic about it, going so far as to say that “no matter the color of the cat, the important thing is that it catch mice.

Chinese economy after covid-19

Although Chinese companies (medium and small) achieve relative success in export markets, the vast majority are not “private” in the western sense, as they have very close ties to local government. 

In fact, almost all of China’s large companies are state-owned, and the few genuinely private (Lenovo, Huawei, and Ali Baba) are very close to the Chinese government. The State dominates broad sectors such as banking, energy and telecommunications.

So even though today’s China is more open to business than the country Mao Zedong left, it is far from fitting into the liberal policy that is so widely proclaimed in the West. 

Although facing certain problems after Covid-19 crisis, the Chinese government is still effective in keeping the gears of its economy working, encouraging a large part of its population to witness a development never seen before in a country whose history was marked by tragedy and adversity.

About the author

Ankita is German Scholar and UPSC Civil Services exams aspirant. She is a blogger too. you can connect her to Instagram or other social Platform.

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