Ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia, were Mesopotamia’s oldest historical people (modern Iraq). These individuals are credited with creating the first written language as well as the earliest towns and states that lasted for many centuries. Without exaggeration, the Sumerians are often considered to be the first civilization. But, Like the Harappa, how many people are aware of the exact date and causes of the Sumerians culture’s demise?
Why Sumerians originate in Mesopotamia ?
The Common question and confusion among the kids is “Are Sumerians Egyptian ?“, is not true. Between the 6th and 5th century B.C., it is assumed that the ancestors of the Sumerians settled the region that is now known as Lower Mesopotamia. Notable is the fact that the area was swampy and unsuitable for farming. Ancient people saw the southern part of Iraq as a desolate and useless area. The fact that the earliest developed urban culture emerged in this location makes it all the more intriguing.
The Sumerians cleared the wetlands and built water routes to the fields so that the crop was not dependent on seasonal rains and droughts. In the Middle East, irrigated agriculture has shown to be highly productive and has helped people advance in development. Writing was needed to calculate the crop excess, metallurgy had to be developed in order to cultivate the land, and pottery came into being as a result of the need to store finished goods.
The first social institutions and political bodies eventually emerged as a result of the population growth and continued economic growth. Naturally, the new society would not have been manageable without religion, which contributed to the development of distinct social norms. Beginning with the construction of colossal temples, which served as both centers of decision-making and the foundation for continued scientific advancement.
This was how the mighty Sumerian society looked. Cities began to emerge from villages around the middle of the 4th millennium BC. Cities have evolved into polis states in the 3rd millennium BC.
What happened to the Sumerians ?
The Sumerians had a more than three thousand year history. Other strong nations and states began to emerge in Mesopotamia around this period. The Semitic civilizations of Akkad, Elam, Babylon, Mitanni, Assyria, and many more centers coexisted in the area with the Sumerians. Each culture coexisted within the confines of polis states, which were largely similar to one another, formed alliances, and engaged in conflict.
Sumerian policies ruled the area up until 2300 B.C. (During this period in India, the Mauryas were ruling and there was no dearth of Buddha and Jain followers). This persisted up until the military prowess of Sargon the Ancient, who not only united the northern Semitic cities but also conquered the Sumerian South, made his appearance in Akkad. As a result, Sargon formally founded the first kingdom in history, which was made up of two distinct cultural areas.
Sumerians and Banylonians
The Sumerian culture persisted in dominance despite the political disaster, and a century later it blossomed with renewed energy. The city of Ur once more served as the political hub of Mesopotamia in the early second millennium BC. The Babylonians were the ones who actually killed off the Sumerians. Hammurabi, king of Babylon between 1793 and 1750 BC, united Mesopotamia into a new, strong monarchy.
The gradual decline of the Sumerian culture started during his rule. Both the ongoing uprisings, which were put down with unspeakable brutality, and the conflict between the Babylonians and the Maritime kingdom, which was established on the northern coast of the Persian Gulf, were manifestations of this. The battleground was Sumer, which the warring parties had utterly destroyed.
The Sumerian language has died, much like the Latin tongue. It remained the language of science and religion for more than a thousand years, but no one used it in daily conversation.
Where are the Sumerians themselves, though ? The new great eastern peoples Babylonians, Assyrians, etc. completely assimilated the Sumerians for a thousand years.
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